Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas or myomas), benign monoclonal tumors, are the most common benign tumors in women. Heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, resultant anemia, pelvic pain, infertility, and/or recurrent pregnancy loss are generally associated with uterine fibroids. Although curative treatment of this tumor relies on surgical therapies, medical treatments are considered the first-line treatment to preserve fertility and avoid or delay surgery.
Many uterine fibroids are asymptomatic and require no intervention, although it is advisable to follow-up patients to document stability in size and growth. Fibroid-associated symptoms include heavy menstrual bleeding and pain or pelvic discomfort. The association between infertility and fibroids increases with age. Treatment options for symptomatic uterine fibroids – include medical, surgical, and radiologically guided interventions. Various medical therapies are now available for women with uterine fibroids, although each therapy has its own advantages and disadvantages. Currently, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) are the most effective medical therapies, with the most evidence to support their reduction of fibroid volume and symptomatic improvement in menstrual bleeding. The choice of treatment depends on the patient’s personal treatment goals, as well as efficacy and need for repeated interventions.
Laparoscopic techniques provide minimally invasive options for many gynaecologic procedures. Myomectomy, the removal of uterine leiomyomas (myomas or fibroids), can be performed laparoscopically. Hysteroscopic myomectomy id done for intracavitary myomas.
All these are day care procedures. Patients need to stay for 24 hours only. It is one of the procedures to enhance fertility. Any size myoma can be removed laparoscopically unless the type is uncertain.